Music and Its Referential Systems (Specula Spectacula Book 3)

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The spectacular cosmic pairing of the star Hen — more commonly known as WR — and the nebula M which surrounds it. Nasa's Hubble Space Telescope has unveiled in stunning detail a small section of the Veil Nebula - expanding remains of a massive star that exploded about 8, years ago. It also took caviar, ready for the satellite's inhabitants to celebrate the holidays. Virts took this photograph of the Gulf of Mexico and U.

Gulf Coast at sunset. Nasa celebrated Black Friday by looking into space instead — sharing pictures of black holes. The Orion capsule jetted off into space before heading back a few hours later — having proved that it can be used, one day, to carry humans to Mars. The Gemini IV crew conducted scientific experiments, including photography of Earth's weather and terrain, for the remainder of their four-day mission following Ed White's historic spacewalk on June 3.

This image of an area on the surface of Mars, approximately 1.

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This near-infrared color image shows a specular reflection, or sunglint, off of a hydrocarbon lake named Kivu Lacus on Saturn's moon Titan. Although Mimas and Pandora, shown here, both orbit Saturn, they are very different moons. Pandora, "small" by moon standards 50 miles or 81 kilometers across is elongated and irregular in shape.


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Mimas miles or kilometers across , a "medium-sized" moon, formed into a sphere due to self-gravity imposed by its higher mass. An X1. Regions of space such as this are where new stars are born from a mixture of elements and cosmic dust. Nasa's Mars Rover Spirit took the first picture from Spirit since problems with communications began a week earlier.

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The image shows the robotic arm extended to the rock called Adirondack. Nasa astronaut Scott Kelly captured this photograph of the green lights of the aurora from the International Space Station. The Space Shuttle Challenger launches from Florida at dawn. On this mission, Kathryn Sullivan became the first U. The crew of seven was the largest to fly on a spacecraft at that time, and STSG was the first flight to include two female astronauts. Galaxy clusters are often described by superlatives. And as we have seen, more festive meals often featured a considerably larger number of dishes.

But as the type of menu that was probably more common on a daily basis at courts or in wealthy homes, it provides a good reference point for ordinary Tafelmusik provided by a chamber ensemble or small orchestra.

Lecture 20. The Colossal Symphony: Beethoven, Berlioz, Mahler and Shostakovich

This suggests that Telemann organized his collection in such a way that purchasers would easily recognize the connection with French table service. To answer this question, we must consider the length of courtly and other festive meals and whether they were accompanied by intermittent or continuous music.

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Meals with French table service appear to have been highly variable in length, lasting anywhere between an hour and a half and six hours. And in fact court documents show that Tafelmusik at the court during this period consisted exclusively of instrumental music in six to nine parts played by about twenty musicians on oboes or recorders, horns, bassoon, strings, and continuo, with trumpets and drums as needed.

Regardless of how long a meal was, the expectation was usually for continuous music.


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  6. Numerous other reports indicate that continuous music was the norm. A ordinance at the Ratstatt court is especially clear on the subject of Tafelmusik , specifying that it is the responsibility of the Kapellmeister on gala days and of the concert master on ordinary days. Concerning performances, the ordinance scolds that. The Concertmeister is hereby graciously ordered to provide adequate music each and every time, and to fashion his Taffel Music in such a way that a concerto or suite [ Parthie ] is produced [ produciret ] not just every half hour, but one after the other without long interruption, as is customary at all princely courts.

    Again, it is taken for granted that Tafelmusik should be continuous, and the repertory, like that at several other German courts of the time, consists of instrumental works. One measure of how established the Tafelmusik tradition became is the presence of musicians in satirical images of banquets, suggesting that for the artists in question, musical entertainment was an essential component of festive meals. Here the music is provided by a ragged bagpiper and shawm player sitting on a large wooden shelf above a discontented bride and her guests, who have little food in front of them and are surrounded by drunkenness and general mayhem.

    Dancing to the music are two figures in the left foreground: a musician with gourds strapped to his back and a fiddle partially concealed under his cloak, and a deformed, Bosch-like character who has two left feet for hands. Hogarth was inspired by the General Election of , in which the Whigs attempted to win back the Oxfordshire seats in Parliament from the Tories, who had long occupied them.

    The scene illustrates an Oxfordshire tavern entertainment organized by the Whig candidates while a Tory mob protests outside. One of the candidates is suffering the company of drunks while the other is being pushed against a toothless old woman and having his wig burned by a pipe. In the foreground, a boy pours more wine into the punch, while a Quaker examines a bribe in the form of an IOU.

    Our latest image, an engraving attributed to Johann Benedikt Wunder — and published in Nuremberg by Friedrich Campe ca. The publication of an all-instrumental collection of Tafelmusik , while unusual, was in keeping with a trend seen in writings and musical repertories of the early eighteenth century. There can be little doubt that Telemann designed his collection to mirror a three-course meal with French table service, the productions being analogous to courses and the individual pieces to dishes.

    Alternatively, a single production, in combination with Tafelblasen supplied by trumpets and drums in between pieces, would have provided enough continuous music for a meal lasting one and a half to two hours.


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    7. In this case, the pieces would become analogous to courses rather than to dishes. One could also pick and choose music from across the collection, since little binds the pieces of an individual production together, and those unable to muster the musical forces required by the overture-suites, concertos, and conclusions might perform just the sonatas. Even the use of the noun production appears to have been carefully considered, as suggested by the currency of the verb producieren in connection with performances and publications of Tafelmusiken during the s and s.

      At the same time, Telemann surely envisioned many users of the collection ignoring its nominal function as accompaniment for meals and instead performing the pieces as abstract music for recreational purposes. At no time will you regret its cost. Bowles, Edmund A. Find this resource:.